The Indian constitution is the most comprehensive and longest written constitution in the world. It was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was convened to frame a constitution for free India after independence. The constituent assembly comprised delegates from every part of India and it had an impressive record of consensus building during its nine months of deliberations. The constitution was finally adopted on 26 November 1949 after being approved by the Constituent Assembly with 327 votes against none abstaining from voting for it (United Nations). Here knowledge glow will provides all salient features of Indian constitution.
Lengthiest Written Constitution
The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution in the world. It was drafted by the Constituent Assembly and came into force on 26 January 1950 after being adopted by referendum.
The Indian Constitution is more than a hundred years old, surviving many changes to become what it is today: a document that continues to provide stability and continuity for India’s diverse population.
Drawn From Various Sources
The Indian Constitution was drawn from various sources, including:
- The British Parliament Act of 1781, which established the supremacy of the British monarch over all other branches of government in India.
- The Doctrine of Lapse and Succession Act (1833), passed by the East India Company after it lost control over several areas in India to local rulers. This law set out rules for succession to throne and other offices within the company’s territories. If a king died without leaving any heirs or if there were no heirs at all, then power would pass firstly to his brother; if this brother didn’t have an eligible son then he could pass on his title instead; and finally if neither option worked then power would go back down into line again until someone else finally got lucky!
Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility
The Indian constitution is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. It is a written document that contains the fundamental structure of governance, but it also allows for flexibility in its interpretation. This synthesis between rigidity and flexibility can be seen throughout the constitution, especially in Articles 14 to 21 where certain fundamental rights are protected by an almost absolute guarantee against interference from any law or executive action.
However, this protection does not extend to all areas; some exceptions have been made for ‘reasonable restrictions’ under Article 19(1) (a).
Federal System With Unitary Bias
In the Indian Constitution, the states and territories are all separate entities that have their own legislatures and governments. The central government has limited power over them; it can only make laws for the entire country or for certain states. This federal system is called unitary because all power resides in the center (the Union government), rather than being distributed among many governments at different levels of government.
The term “unitary bias” refers to how much power each level of government has over its own affairs compared to other levels of government or even individuals within those levels. In other words, if you’re looking at how much influence someone has over something like health care policy or education policy—which should be decided by state governments and not by any one national body—then an “unitary” bias means there will be less control over these areas than if we had more decentralization:
Parliamentary Form of Government
Parliamentary form of government is a form of government where the executive is derived from the legislative branch. In this form of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it through a vote of no confidence. This happens whenever there is an absence or failure by one party in power to keep its promises made during election time and also if they fail to fulfill their duties as per law.
Parliamentary systems have been around since ancient times when people started having more power over their lives than before; due to this reason these systems evolved into what we know today as parliamentary democracies (the United Kingdom being one such example).
Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy
Rule of Law
The most important distinction between parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy is that the former is an absolute, while the latter is a limited one. Under parliamentary sovereignty, parliament exercises all powers not expressly transferred to another body or restricted by law. Thus, when it comes to matters other than those falling under its legislative competence—meaning essentially everything else—the judiciary cannot interfere with decisions made by Parliament or its ministers; however, if there is any doubt about whether something falls within this ambit or not (that’s where judicial review comes in), then it can intervene before someone has been harmed by their actions (like as was done in India’s recent case involving Section 377).
Rule of law is the principle that all individuals, institutions, and entities are subject to and accountable to law. In other words, it means that everyone must be treated equally before the law.
Rule of law is a cornerstone of democracy and social order because it ensures fairness in society by ensuring that no one group has power over another group or individual for personal gain.
Rule of law is also the foundation for individual freedom because it prohibits government from infringing upon citizens’ rights without due process; this prevents tyranny by allowing people to challenge wrongdoings done against them when they feel threatened by them (for example: if someone steals your property).
Integrated and Independent Judiciary
The Judiciary is the third pillar of democracy, and therefore it has to be independent and free from political interference. It is also the guardian of the Constitution. The role of Judiciary in our country is to interpret laws, to ensure that they are not misused for personal benefit or abuse by public officials; it also ensures protection against any arbitrary actions taken by government officials.
The Supreme Court was established under Article 145(1) after Independence in 1950 which reads: “There shall be a Supreme Court”. In addition, there are other High Courts at each level as per their respective jurisdictions (State High Court v State Assembly).
The fundamental rights of a citizen are guaranteed to him by the Constitution. It is not possible for any law-making body or government agency to violate these rights or any person’s right under them. Fundamental rights are non-negotiable, which means that they cannot be taken away by Parliament or state legislatures. These include:
- Life and liberty – freedom from arrest, detention, torture and other cruel punishment; freedom from slavery; right against self-incrimination (that one may not refuse to answer questions when questioned); equality before law etc.;
- Equality before law – equal opportunity in matters pertaining to occupation etc.; special protection against discrimination on grounds of religion race colour ethnicity language sex disability nationality origin place of birth family status residence etc.
- Freedom of Speech Expression Conscience Belief Harmony Culture Language Education Employment Health Care Social Security Services Welfare Accommodation Housing Food Water Sanitation Public Health Services Transportation Medical Insurance Defense Protection Security Education Research Culture Tourism Sports Travel Recreation Sports Entertainment Literature Art Cinema Dance Music Television Movies Theater Live Concerts Concerts Arts Events Religious Festivals Communication Interpersonal Relationships Workplace
Directive Principles of State Policy
The DPSP are not enforceable, but they are a guide to the state. They are not mentioned in the Constitution and therefore cannot be considered fundamental rights. However, they are a part of our constitution and it can be argued that one should follow them as such.
The fundamental duties are a part of the Indian Constitution. They are based on the principle of secularism and moral obligation. They do not give any legal right to citizens, but they are enforceable by law.
They are distinct from fundamental rights and they cannot be enforced by law courts or police authorities alone or even through public pressure groups like All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB).
Indian Secularism is a core value of the Indian Constitution, which means that it’s something you should take note of. It’s not just a matter of being neutral towards different religions or even respecting them, but also ensuring that no religion gets special privileges in any way. In other words, secularism is the state’s lack of preference for any particular religion over another and its willingness to treat all religions equally under law.
The term ‘secularism’ has often been used interchangeably with ‘tolerance’. But this isn’t accurate: tolerance simply means treating people as individuals rather than groups; whereas secularism requires an unbiased attitude towards all beliefs and ideologies (regardless of whether they’re religious or not).
Universal Adult Franchise
Universal adult franchise means that every citizen of the country who is above 18 years of age can vote. This is a legal right and not a privilege. It is also called ‘right to vote’ or ‘right to participate in elections’ which is available to all adult citizens of India who are at least 18 years old, resident in India and possess some form of identification (e- Voter Card/Voter ID Card) with photo identity card issued by Election Commission or State Election Commission
You may be a citizen of the United States and another country (such as India) at the same time. In this case, you are considered to be a dual citizen because you hold two citizenships. However, if any of your parents were born in an independent state such as Bangladesh or Pakistan and then moved to India when they married each other, they would not have been allowed to obtain Indian citizenship since those countries did not have diplomatic ties with each other until 1947 when Pakistan gained independence from British rule while India became free from British control after their defeat in World War II.
The Constitution has given an independent body, the Supreme Court of India, to safeguard the rights of citizens. It also created an elaborate system of courts to settle disputes between individuals and governments. In addition, there are two other important bodies that work under the jurisdiction of this court: High Courts and District Courts (which handle civil matters).
There are several other independent institutions in India that need to be mentioned here because they play an important role in ensuring justice for all citizens: Central Administrative Tribunals (CATs), National Judicial Academy (NJA), National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and Central Vigilance Commission are some examples
Emergency provisions are provided for in the constitution. The emergency provisions are found in article 352, which empowers Parliament to declare a state of emergency and appoint a chief minister or administrator who can govern during such a period.
The president may also declare emergencies under article 352, but only if “external aggression” is taking place or war has broken out with another country.
The three-tier government system is a system of government in which the state is divided into three levels: federal, state and local governments. The federal government has its own powers while the states and territories have their own responsibilities.
The federal government is responsible for the nation’s defense, foreign relations and interstate commerce while it also regulates some industries such as banking and aviation. The states govern education, health care, social services (such as welfare), transportation systems (including roads), public welfare agencies etc.
Co-operative societies are autonomous, self-help organisations that provide a range of services to their members and the community. They are owned and democratically controlled by their members who share in the profits generated from their activities. Co-operatives are democratic organisations which are owned and controlled by their members. They operate for the benefit of their members and communities, not just for profit.
Philosophy of Constitution
The philosophy of constitution is the belief that a state or nation should be governed by certain principles which are deemed to be universal. In India, it is believed this can be achieved through a system called ‘constitutionalism’.
Constitutionalism refers to a legal system in which sovereignty rests with the people as opposed to kings or monarchs; it also means that authority lies with elected representatives rather than rulers. Constitutionalism ensures rule by law and order rather than force (which may lead to oppressive regimes). It encourages debate over major issues so that they can be resolved peacefully at least once every five years during elections according to their laws set forth by parliamentarians representing various political parties within the country at large.
The Constitution serves as both supreme law and fundamental document for all citizens who live within its borders since it lays out many foundational principles upon which our society operates today: democracy; liberty without license; equality before courts; freedom from discrimination based on caste or religion etc., among others
The Indian constitution is a dynamic document that has undergone significant changes over time. The original text was drafted by the Constituent Assembly in 1950, but it has been amended many times since then and still continues to evolve. The articles listed above are the most important ones, but there are many others that affect our day-to-day lives as well.