Have you heard of Nelson Mandela? Mandela and his African national congressmen spent a lifetime fighting against apartheid. Mandela had to spend thirty years in prison. Finally, democratic elections were held in South Africa in 1994, and Mandela became the first black president of a new nation.
In this extract from his autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, Mandela speaks about a historic occasion. ‘the inauguration’. Can you guess what the occasion might be? Check your guess with this news item (From the BBC) on 10 May 1994.
In the chapter “Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom” from the book “First Flight” of Class 10 English NCERT, we learn about the life of one of the most outstanding leaders of the 20th century, Nelson Mandela. This chapter covers various aspects of his life, from his early childhood to his long struggle against apartheid in South Africa. Here is a detailed chapter analysis and NCERT solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom.
Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
On July 18, 1918, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in the South African town of Mvezo, in the Transkei province. His mother was the third of his father’s four marriages, and his father was a tribal chief. In his home tongue of Xhosa, Mandela was given the moniker “Rolihlahla,” which translates to “troublemaker” in English.
At the University of Fort Hare, where he majored in law, Mandela received his education. He was expelled from the institution nonetheless after taking part in a student protest in his second year. He subsequently relocated to Johannesburg where, while working as a clerk in a law office, he finished his legal education at the of South Africa.
In South Africa’s Eastern Cape, in a little community called Mvezo, Nelson Mandela was born. His mother, Nosekeni Fanny, was the third of his four wives, and his father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was a local chief. When Mandela was only nine years old, his father passed away, and Jongintaba Dalindyebo, the Thembu people’s regent, took him in. Mandela subsequently said that this encounter, which had a significant impact on him, was the moment when he first realized the injustices that black people in South Africa endured.
Mandela attended Qunu Village School before moving on to Clarkebury Boarding School and Healdtown College. He was exposed to the concepts of pan-Africanism and socialism in Healdtown, where he developed an interest in African history and politics. At the University of Fort Hare, where he later pursued a legal education, Mandela was involved in student government and won a position on the Student Representative Council.
Nelson Mandela’s Fight Against Apartheid
In South Africa, there was an institutionalized system of racial segregation called apartheid, which lasted from 1948 until the early 1990s. During apartheid, South Africa’s white minority government imposed a set of laws and regulations that denied black South Africans access to basic freedoms and rights. In 1944, Mandela joined the African National Congress (ANC), a group established to combat apartheid and secure equal rights for black South Africans. Mandela soon ascended to the ANC’s ranks and emerged as a key player in the fight against apartheid.
Mandela and other ANC leaders were detained and accused of treason at the beginning of the 1960s. The following 27 years of Mandela’s life were spent behind bars, where he remained a figure of defiance and hope for the black South African people. He wrote a lot while incarcerated about his views on justice, democracy, and freedom.
The Long Walk to Freedom “Nelson Mandela as a Leader”
The South African government came under increasing international pressure to abolish apartheid in the 1980s. Mandela became a global emblem of freedom and resistance, and his imprisonment became a representation of the struggle against apartheid.
Mandela was released from prison by the South African government in 1990, following years of lobbying and demonstrations. In the negotiations that resulted in the abolition of apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial democracy in South Africa, he was a crucial player. Mandela won a democratic election in 1994 and became South Africa’s first black president.
Nelson Mandela was a remarkable leader in addition to being a symbol of resistance and optimism. People all over the world were inspired by his leadership traits, such as his vision, courage, and compassion. His leadership as President of South Africa contributed to the unification of a bitterly divided nation because he believed in forgiveness and healing.
Even after leaving office, Mandela stayed involved in politics and promoted social justice and equality. He got various medals and honors for his work as a human rights and peace activist around the world.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
Students will learn about Nelson Mandela’s life and contributions to society, as well as the fight against apartheid in South Africa, in this chapter. The following significant queries and responses may aid students in better understanding this chapter:
Who was Nelson Mandela?
- Nelson Mandela was a political figure, philanthropist, and anti-apartheid activist from South Africa.
What was apartheid?
- In South Africa, there was an institutionalized system of racial segregation called apartheid, which lasted from 1948 until the early 1990s.
What was the role of the African National Congress in the fight against apartheid?
- An organization called the African National Congress was established to combat apartheid and secure equal rights for black South Africans.
What was Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment?
- Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in prison as a result of his participation in the struggle against apartheid.
What was the significance of Nelson Mandela’s release from prison?
- Mandela played a crucial role in the talks that resulted in the abolition of apartheid and the foundation of multiracial democracy in South Africa. His release from jail became a symbol of the struggle against apartheid.
Access Answers to NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?
The ceremonies took place in the sandstone amphitheater formed by the union building in Pretoria. The red fort and the India Gate are buildings made of sandstone.
Can you say how May 10 is ‘an autumn day’ in south africa?
10th May is an autumn day in South Africa due to its location on Earth. It is the beginning of the winter. On this day Nelson Mandela took Oath as the first black president of South Africa.
At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions ‘an extraordinary human disaster’. What does he mean by this? what is the ‘glorious… Human achievement’ He speaks of at the end?
He means that the black people of south africa have been the victim of the system of Apartheid. It was a man made disaster. He speaks about the freedom of his people from oppression ‘glorious human achievement’.
What does Mandela thank the international Leaders for?
Mandela thanks the international Leaders for having come to the occasion of South Africa’s liberty and accepting it as an independent republic.
what Ideas does he set out for the future of South Africa?
He sets the Ideal that his Country will never experience the oppression of one by another.
What does the military general do? How has their attitude changed and why?
The military general saluted Mandela and pledged their loyalty. Previous they have arrested him. But their attitude has changed as Mr. Mandela has become the president of South Africa.
Why were two national anthems sung?
The public of South Africa consists of white and black people. Each group sang its own anthem.
How does Mandela describe the system of government in his country (i) In the first decade, and (ii) In the final decade, of the twentieth century?
(i) In the first decade of the 20th century their was a system of racial domination against black people. It was the most inhumane system.
(ii) In the last decade of the same century system had been replaced by a system that recognized the rights and freedom of all peoples.
What does courage mean to Mandela?
For Mandela courage was not the absence of fear but the triumph over it.
Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?
To love is natural in human beings.
What ‘twin obligations’ does Mandela Mention?
One obligation is to one’s family, parents, wife, and children. The second obligation is to his people, community, and country.
What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast this ‘ transitory freedom’ with basic and honorable freedom?
As a boy freedom for Mandela was to run in the fields, to swim in the stream running through his village, to ride the bull. As a student freedom for Mandela was to stay out at night, to read what he pleased, and to go where he chose. These were only transitory freedom. Later he realized that he wanted the basic freedom and honorable freedom of achieving his potential, earning his keep, marrying, and having a family.
Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/Why Not?
Mandela thinks that the oppressor is not free because he is a prisoner of hatred. He is locked up by prejudice and narrow-mindedness.
Why did such a large number of international Leaders attend the inauguration? Why did it signify the triumph of?
A large number of international Leaders attended the inauguration because it is ‘an autumn day’ for the people of South Africa. They have got freedom from restriction and derivation. They are now free from being treated differently or unfavorably. They are no longer ‘Out Laws’ Now. Diplomatic relations with South Africa will be rewarded. The policy of Apartheid will come to an end. It has been a great privilege for South Africa to be host to the nations of the world on their own soil. They have come to take possession of the people of that country.
It signified the triumph of Justice, Peace, and human dignity. It showed that
he people of South Africa have achieved their political emancipation.
What does Mandela mean when he says he is ‘simply the sum of all those African patriots’ who had gone before him?
When Mandela says he is ‘simply the sum of all those African patriots’ who had gone before him, he means the unimaginable sacrifices of thousands of these people. Their suffering and courage can never be counted or repaid. He feels that the noble liberty drawn by them has ended. It has now again begun with him. He feels painting that he was not able to thank them and that they were not able to see what their sacrifices had achieved.