List of Biosphere Reserves in India

Biosphere Reserves in India

A biosphere reserve is an area of land or sea that is safe and guarded. In 1971, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has launched the biosphere reserve network and chosen the biosphere reserve as a part of Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program. These reserves are examined to preserve biodiversity and promote sustainable development.

This blog post on Biosphere reserves in India, will explore about the 18 biosphere in India. We will cover the following topics:

  • What is Biosphere Reserve in India?
  • No. of Zones of Biosphere Reserve
  • What is the role of Biosphere Reserve in India?
  • Which are important Biosphere Reserve in India?
  • What is the important functions of Biosphere Reserve?
  • Which are UNESCO Protected Biosphere Reserves?

With the thought to help the UPSC exam aspirants, we are going to write the detailed blog on this topic. This blog includes the information that is very easy to understand.

About Biosphere Reserve in India

The biosphere reserves in India promote sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. There are 18 biospheres in India to protect the natural heritage and provide important ecosystem services.

Zones of Biosphere Reserve

In India, the biosphere reserves are divided into three zones:

Core zone: The core zone is the innermost zone which is the home to the most sensitive ecosystems. It is strictly protected to limit the most human activities.

Buffer zone: The buffer zone is typically used for different activities including research, education, and tourism.

Transition zone: The transition zone involves the use of sustainable development activities such as agriculture and forestry.

Role of Biosphere Reserve in India

In India, there are 18 biosphere reserves which play a crucial role. Here is the detailed information about the roles of these 18 biosphere reserve in India.

The roles of Biosphere Reserve in India include:

  • Protecting biodiversity
  • Promoting sustainable development
  • Conserve endangered species
  • Protect water resources
  • Reduce climate change impacts
  • Provide ecosystem services such as pollination and climate regulation.

Important Biosphere Reserve in India

In India, there are 18 internationally recognized biosphere reserves. These 10 biosphere reserves in India promote the sustainable development and protect biodiversity in India. These recognized areas cover a wide variety of ecosystems from the Nilgiris tropical rainforests to the Nanda Devi alpine meadows

Here is a list of 18 important Biosphere Reserve in India:

  1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
  2. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (Uttarakhand)
  3. Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve
  4. Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (Sikkim)
  5. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve (Tamil Nadu)
  6. Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve (Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh)
  7. Thar Desert Biosphere Reserve (Rajasthan)
  8. Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve (Andhra Pradesh)
  9. Rann of Kutch Biosphere Reserve (Gujarat)
  10. Panna Biosphere Reserve (Madhya Pradesh)
  11. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (Madhya Pradesh)
  12. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (Meghalaya)
  13. Manas Biosphere Reserve (Assam)
  14. Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve (Assam)
  15. Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve (Arunachal Pradesh)
  16. Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve (Himachal Pradesh)
  17. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Biosphere Reserve (Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
  18. Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka)

Now we will discuss some important Biosphere Reserve in India in detail.

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve: Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is located in the Western Ghats( Tamilnadu and Kerala). This biosphere reserve gives shelter to endemic plant species and wild life such as tigers, elephants, and leopards.

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve: Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve is home to the Nanda Devi Peak is located in the Himalayas. The Nanda Devi Peak is the second-highest mountain in India. The peak of Nanda Devi is home to various wildlife such as snow leopards, Himalayan tahr, and musk deer.

Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve: The Sundarbans biosphere reserve is home to the largest mangrove forest in the world called Sundarbans mangrove forest. Aside from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, it is the home to wildlife such as tigers, crocodiles, and dolphins.

Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve: Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve is home to the highest mountain in India called Khangchendzonga mountain. The location of Khangchendzonga is the eastern Himalayas. It is the home of wildlife such as snow leopards, takins, and red pandas.

Ways to Protect the Biosphere Reserves in India

By reducing the impacts on the environment by saving water and energy.
Learn about the importance of conversation about biodiversity.

Functions of Biosphere Reserve

The Biosphere Reserve functions are mentioned below:

  • biodiversity conservation
  • sustainable development promotion
  • Research
  • Education
  • Public awareness
  • Management and planning

UNESCO Protected Biosphere Reserves

The UNESCO Protected Biosphere Reserves include:

  • Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve, United States:
  • Tanzanian Southern Highlands Biosphere Reserve, Tanzania
  • Cerrado Biosphere Reserve, Brazil
  • Galápagos Islands Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador
  • Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) Biosphere Reserves, India


For the conservation of biodiversity and promoting sustainable development, Biosphere reserves are important. The Biosphere Reserves provide ecosystem services and protect our natural heritage. So it is advisable to protect the natural heritage.

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