The method known as “DNA fingerprinting” reveals the genetic composition of living organisms. It is a technique for determining the distinctions between the genome’s satellite DNA regions.
What is DNA Fingerprinting?
Satellite DNA sections are repeating DNA segments that don’t encode any particular proteins. A significant portion of the human DNA profile is made up of these non-coding elements. They serve as the foundation for DNA fingerprinting and show a significant degree of polymorphism. Because these genes exhibit a high degree of variability across a wide range of tissues, they are highly valuable in forensic investigations.
It is possible to analyze any DNA sample discovered at a crime scene to determine the degree of polymorphism in the repeated non-coding sequences. By taking the suspects’ DNA fingerprints, it becomes simpler to identify the offender once the DNA profile has been traced.
In addition to crime scenes, fingerprinting apps can be used to run a paternity test on a baby’s DNA sample in order to identify the parents of an unclaimed child.
DNA Fingerprinting Steps
Because satellite DNAs had a significant degree of polymorphism, Alec Jeffreys devised this technique using satellite DNAs, also known as VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats), as a probe.
The stages involved in creating a DNA fingerprint are as follows:
Isolating the DNA.
Using restriction endonuclease enzymes to aid in the digestion of DNA.
Using the electrophoresis method to separate the digested pieces according to their size.
Blotting the divided pieces onto nylon-like synthetic membranes.
Using labeled VNTR probes to hybridize the fragments.
Using autoradiography to analyze the hybrid pieces
DNA Fingerprinting Applications
As was previously said, DNA analysis is done using the fingerprinting approach in forensic and paternity examinations. In addition to these two domains, it’s also employed in figuring out how frequently a specific gene occurs in a population, leading to diversity. Fingerprinting can be used to track the evolutionary significance of changes in gene frequency or genetic drift.