Stephen William Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, in Oxford, England. His parents, Frank and Isobel Hawking, were both are highly educated and worked in the medical line. Stephen Hawking showed an early interest in mathematics and science, and he attended University College, Oxford, where stephen Hawking studied physics and graduated with first-class honors in 1962.
Hawking went on to pursue graduate studies in cosmology at the University of Cambridge. While working on his PhD, he was diagnosed with motor neuron disease (also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS) at the age of 21. This condition gradually left him paralyzed and unable to speak, and he was given only a few years to live. Despite this devastating prognosis, Hawking continued to work on his PhD and completed it in 1966.
After completing PhD, Stephen Hawking began working as a research fellow at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He quickly became known for his groundbreaking work on black holes, which he showed could emit radiation and eventually evaporate. This work earned him international recognition and numerous awards, including the Albert Einstein Medal and the Wolf Prize in Physics.
In 1979, Hawking was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, a position once held by Isaac Newton Sir. He held this position until 2009 and continued to conduct research and make important contributions to the field of cosmology.
In addition to his research, Hawking was also known for his popular science writing and his efforts to make science accessible to a wider audience. His book “A Brief History of Time,” published in 1988, became an international bestseller and has sold over 10 million copies. He went on to write several more books, including “The Universe in a Nutshell” and “The Grand Design,” and he appeared in numerous documentaries and popular television shows.
Hawking’s contributions to science were recognized with numerous awards and honors, including the Copley Medal, the highest award of the Royal Society, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States. He was also a fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
Hawking continued to work and make scientific contributions until his death on March 14, 2018, at the age of 76. He will be remembered as one of the most brilliant and influential scientists of the 20th and 21st centuries, as well as a beloved public figure who inspired countless people around the world with his intelligence, courage, and humor. Here knowledge glow will provide complete biography on stephen william hawking.
Stephen Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, in Oxford, England, to parents Isobel Hawking and Frank. His father was a medical researcher, and his mother was a secretary. Hawking had two sisters.
As a child, Hawking was a bright student with a love for mathematics and science. He attended St. Albans School in Hertfordshire, England, where he was a top student and captain of the school’s cross-country running team. He was also interested in music and played the trumpet.
In 1959, Hawking began his undergraduate studies in physics at University College, Oxford. He found the coursework relatively easy and spent much of his time exploring new ideas in physics and mathematics. In 1962, he graduated with first-class honors and went on to pursue graduate studies in cosmology at the University of Cambridge.
While at Cambridge, Hawking was diagnosed with motor neuron disease (also known as ALS) at the age of 21. This condition gradually left him paralyzed and unable to speak, but he continued to work on his PhD and completed it in 1966. Despite his diagnosis, Hawking remained determined to pursue a career in science and continued to make significant contributions to the field throughout his life.
Stephen Hawking was the eldest of three children born to Frank and Isobel Hawking. His father, Frank Hawking, was a medical researcher, and his mother, Isobel Hawking, was a secretary. Hawking had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and grew up in a close-knit family.
Hawking married twice in his lifetime. In 1965, he married Jane Wilde, a language student he met while studying at Cambridge. The couple had three children together, Robert, Lucy, and Timothy. However, the demands of Hawking’s career and his increasing disability put a strain on the marriage, and they divorced in 1995.
In 1997, Hawking married Elaine Mason, one of his former nurses, who had also been married before. Their relationship was controversial, and there were rumors of abuse, but both parties denied any wrongdoing. The marriage ended in divorce in 2006.
Hawking’s children and ex-wife, Jane, played important roles in his life and career. Jane provided him with care and support for many years, while his children followed in his footsteps as scientists and educators. Hawking was also close to his sisters and maintained close relationships with many friends and colleagues throughout his life.
Primary and Secondary School Years
Stephen Hawking attended two schools during his primary and secondary education in England. He began at Byron House School in Highgate, London, where he was known as a curious and independent student. He excelled academically and was a skilled debater, but he did not enjoy sports.
Hawking then attended St. Albans School in Hertfordshire, where he became interested in science and mathematics. He continued to excel academically and became a top student in his class. He was also involved in extracurricular activities, including the school’s chess club and cross-country running team, which he captained.
At the age of 17, Hawking took the entrance exam for University College, Oxford, and was accepted to study physics. He completed his undergraduate studies there and graduated with first-class honors in 1962. He then went on to pursue graduate studies in cosmology at the University of Cambridge, where he was diagnosed with motor neuron disease (also known as ALS) at the age of 21. Despite this diagnosis, Hawking continued to work on his PhD and completed it in 1966.
Stephen Hawking began his undergraduate studies in physics at University College, Oxford in 1959, at the age of 17. He found the coursework relatively easy and spent much of his time exploring new ideas in physics and mathematics. In his second year, he was awarded a scholarship to continue his studies.
During his time at Oxford, Hawking was a member of the University College Boat Club and the Experimental Philosophy Club. He also played the trumpet and attended music concerts.
Hawking graduated from Oxford in 1962 with first-class honors in Natural Science. After completing his undergraduate studies, he went on to pursue graduate studies in cosmology at the University of Cambridge. He was diagnosed with motor neuron disease (also known as ALS) during his time at Cambridge, but he continued to work on his PhD and completed it in 1966.
After completing his undergraduate studies at the University of Oxford in 1962, Stephen Hawking went on to pursue graduate studies in cosmology at the University of Cambridge. In 1963, he began his PhD research, which focused on the study of singularities in the universe, and specifically the singularities that occur in black holes.
In 1965, Hawking was diagnosed with motor neuron disease (also known as ALS), which gradually left him paralyzed and unable to speak. Despite this, he continued his research, and in 1966, he completed his PhD and was awarded a doctorate in applied mathematics and theoretical physics.
Hawking’s doctoral thesis, titled “Properties of Expanding Universes,” laid the foundation for his future research on black holes and the nature of the universe. He continued to work at Cambridge, first as a research fellow and then as a professor, and made many significant contributions to the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics throughout his career.
In addition to his research, Hawking also wrote several popular science books, including his best-selling book “A Brief History of Time,” which was published in 1988 and sold millions of copies worldwide. The book made him a household name and helped to popularize science for a general audience.
After completing his PhD in 1966, Stephen Hawking continued to work at the University of Cambridge as a research fellow and then as a professor of gravitational physics. During this time, he made many significant contributions to the field of cosmology and theoretical physics.
One of his most important contributions during this period was his work on black holes. In 1970, he published a paper that proposed the laws of black hole mechanics, which demonstrated that black holes were not entirely black, but could emit radiation. This discovery, known as “Hawking radiation,” is considered one of his most important contributions to theoretical physics.
In addition to his work on black holes, Hawking also continued to study the origins and nature of the universe. In 1973, he published a paper with James Bardeen and Brandon Carter that proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, which further developed the concept of Hawking radiation.
Hawking also continued to teach and mentor students during this period, and he was widely recognized as a brilliant and innovative scientist. His work on black holes and the nature of the universe had a profound impact on the field of cosmology, and he became one of the most well-known and respected scientists in the world.
From 1975 to 1990, Stephen Hawking continued to work at the University of Cambridge as a professor of gravitational physics. During this time, he made many important contributions to the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics.
In 1982, Hawking was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, the United Kingdom’s national academy of science, which is one of the highest honors that can be bestowed upon a scientist. In 1985, he was appointed as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, a position that had previously been held by Sir Isaac Newton.
In 1988, Hawking published his best-selling book “A Brief History of Time,” which introduced complex scientific concepts to a general audience and became an international best-seller, selling over 10 million copies worldwide. The book made Hawking a household name and brought his work to a wider audience, inspiring a generation of scientists and science enthusiasts.
During this period, Hawking continued to conduct groundbreaking research in the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics. He made important contributions to the study of black holes and the nature of the universe, and his work helped to shape our understanding of the origins and evolution of the cosmos.
In addition to his research, Hawking was a popular speaker and public figure, and he continued to travel and give lectures on science and cosmology around the world. His work and public presence had a profound impact on the scientific community and on popular culture, inspiring a new generation of scientists and science enthusiasts.
From 1990 to 2000, Stephen Hawking continued to work at the University of Cambridge, where he held the position of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics until his retirement in 2009. During this period, he made significant contributions to the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics, and his work continued to shape our understanding of the nature of the universe.
In 1993, Hawking published “Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays,” a collection of essays that explored topics such as the origins of the universe and the nature of black holes. The book was well-received by both scientists and the general public, and further established Hawking’s reputation as a brilliant and innovative thinker.
During this period, Hawking also became involved in efforts to popularize science and bring it to a wider audience. He appeared in several television programs, including the documentary series “Stephen Hawking’s Universe” and the children’s show “Little Britain,” and he was a frequent guest on talk shows and other media outlets.
In 1998, Hawking co-authored a paper with cosmologist Thomas Hertog that proposed a new theory of the origins of the universe. The theory, which is known as the “no-boundary proposal,” suggests that the universe had no distinct beginning, but instead emerged from a state of quantum flux.
Throughout this period, Hawking continued to be widely recognized as one of the most brilliant and innovative scientists of his time. He received numerous honors and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, which is the highest civilian award in the United States, and he remained a popular and respected figure in the scientific community and in popular culture.
From 2000 to his passing in 2018, Stephen Hawking continued to make significant contributions to the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics, despite his declining health due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease that he had been diagnosed with in his early 20s.
During this period, Hawking worked on a number of groundbreaking papers, including a paper on the black hole information paradox, which proposed a new theory on how information might be preserved when it is absorbed by a black hole.
Hawking also continued to be a popular public figure, appearing in a number of documentaries and television programs, including “The Simpsons” and “The Big Bang Theory.” He also wrote several more popular science books, including “The Universe in a Nutshell” and “A Briefer History of Time,” which sought to make complex scientific concepts accessible to a general audience.
Despite his deteriorating health, Hawking continued to travel and give lectures on science and cosmology, inspiring generations of scientists and science enthusiasts around the world. In 2009, he retired from his position as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, but he remained active in his research and continued to publish papers and give talks.
Hawking’s contributions to science and his impact on popular culture during this period were immense. He received numerous awards and honors, including the Albert Einstein Award, the Copley Medal, and the Fundamental Physics Prize. His life and work continue to inspire new generations of scientists and science enthusiasts around the world.
Stephen Hawking was married twice during his life. He married his first wife, Jane Wilde, in 1965, while he was a graduate student at Cambridge. The couple had three children together and were married for 30 years before divorcing in 1995.
Hawking’s second marriage was to his nurse, Elaine Mason, whom he had met in the 1980s. The couple married in 1995, shortly after Hawking’s divorce from Jane was finalized. However, the marriage was controversial, with allegations of abuse and mistreatment made by both Hawking’s family and staff members. The couple eventually divorced in 2006.
Despite the controversy surrounding his second marriage, Hawking remained close to his children and continued to have a strong relationship with Jane Wilde, who remained his friend and advocate throughout his life.
Stephen Hawking was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his early 20s, a neurodegenerative disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles. Over time, the disease caused him to lose the ability to move most of his body, including his arms and legs, and eventually even his ability to speak.
Despite his physical disability, Hawking was able to continue his work in the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics through the use of a wheelchair and a computerized voice system. He communicated by using a device that allowed him to select words and phrases using movements in his cheek and eyes, which were detected by sensors attached to his glasses. The device then converted the selected words and phrases into speech using a synthesized voice.
Hawking’s disability made his achievements all the more remarkable, as he was able to overcome immense physical challenges and continue to contribute to our understanding of the universe in profound ways. He was also an advocate for disability rights and a role model for people with disabilities around the world.
Plans for a Trip to Space
Stephen Hawking had plans to travel to space, and he had been working with a private spaceflight company, Virgin Galactic, to make this possible. The company’s founder, Sir Richard Branson, had offered to take Hawking on a zero-gravity flight in one of his spacecraft, and Hawking had expressed his excitement about the opportunity.
However, Hawking’s declining health made it increasingly difficult for him to travel, and he was ultimately unable to make the trip before his passing in 2018. Nonetheless, Hawking’s interest in space and his enthusiasm for the possibilities of space travel continue to inspire many people around the world.
Stephen Hawking passed away on March 14, 2018, at the age of 76. He had been living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) for over 50 years, and his health had been declining in the years leading up to his passing.
Hawking’s death was widely mourned around the world, with many people paying tribute to his life and work in the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics. He was remembered as one of the most brilliant scientific minds of his generation, as well as a popular and engaging public figure who had inspired people around the world with his enthusiasm for science and his determination to overcome the challenges posed by his disability.
Hawking’s legacy continues to inspire new generations of scientists and science enthusiasts, and his contributions to our understanding of the universe will undoubtedly be remembered for many years to come.
Stephen Hawking had a neurodegenerative disease called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease or motor neuron disease. ALS is a progressive disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles, leading to weakness and atrophy in the muscles and, eventually, loss of motor function.
In Hawking’s case, the disease gradually caused him to lose the ability to move most of his body, including his arms and legs, and eventually even his ability to speak. However, he was able to continue his work in the fields of cosmology and theoretical physics through the use of a wheelchair and a computerized voice system.
Despite his physical challenges, Hawking was a tireless advocate for people with disabilities and a role model for many individuals around the world who face similar challenges.
Stephen Hawking Quotes
Stephen Hawking was known for his insightful and thought-provoking quotes about science, the universe, and life itself. Here are a some examples:
- Look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see, and wonder about what makes the universe exist. Be curious.
- Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.
- The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.
- We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star. But we can understand the universe. That makes us something very special.
- One can’t predict the weather more than a few days in advance.
- My goal is simple. It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is, and why it exists at all.
- Life would be tragic if it weren’t funny.
Stephen Hawking Awards and honours
Stephen Hawking received numerous awards and honors throughout his lifetime, in recognition of his groundbreaking work in the fields of physics and cosmology. Here are some of the most notable awards and honors he received:
- Albert Einstein Award (1978)
- Commander of the Order of the British Empire (1982)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1985)
- Wolf Prize in Physics (1988)
- Companion of Honor (1989)
- Copley Medal of the Royal Society (2006)
- Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
- Fundamental Physics Prize (2013)
- BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences (2015)
- Hawking Radiation conference named in his honor (2018)
Films and series
|A Brief History of Time (1992)|
|Stephen Hawking’s Universe (1997)|
|Hawking – BBC television film (2004) starring Benedict Cumberbatch|
|Horizon: The Hawking Paradox (2005)|
|Masters of Science Fiction (2007)|
|Stephen Hawking and the Theory of Everything (2007)|
|Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe (2008)|
|Into the Universe with Stephen Hawking (2010)|
|Brave New World with Stephen Hawking (2011)|
|Stephen Hawking’s Grand Design (2012)|
|The Big Bang Theory (2012, 2014–2015, 2017)|
|Stephen Hawking: A Brief History of Mine (2013)|
|The Theory of Everything – Feature film (2014) starring Eddie Redmayne|
|Genius by Stephen Hawking (2016)|
Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
The Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication is an award established in 2016 by the Starmus Festival, an international gathering celebrating science and music. The award is given to individuals or groups who have made significant contributions to popularizing science, particularly in the fields of astrophysics and cosmology.
The medal is named in honor of Stephen Hawking, who was a frequent participant in the Starmus Festival prior to his death in 2018. The award recognizes the importance of communicating scientific knowledge to the public, and aims to inspire others to follow in Hawking’s footsteps by sharing their passion for science with the world.
Recipients of the Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication include Brian Eno, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Hans Zimmer, and the European Space Agency’s Rosetta Mission Team. The award is presented during the Starmus Festival, which brings together leading scientists, musicians, and artists to explore the frontiers of science and creativity.
Stephen Hawking Books
Stephen Hawking wrote several popular books that helped to make complex scientific concepts more accessible to a general audience. Here are some of his most notable books:
“A Brief History of Time” (1988): This best-selling book offers an overview of the universe, covering topics such as the Big Bang, black holes, and the search for a unified theory of physics.
“The Universe in a Nutshell” (2001): This follow-up to “A Brief History of Time” explores the latest developments in cosmology and theoretical physics, from string theory to the nature of time.
“On the Shoulders of Giants” (2002): This book presents a collection of essays by some of the greatest minds in science, with commentary by Hawking on the contributions of these thinkers to our understanding of the universe.
“The Grand Design” (2010): In this book, Hawking discusses the latest ideas in cosmology and the search for a theory of everything, offering a vision of the universe that challenges traditional notions of God and creation.
“Brief Answers to the Big Questions” (2018): This posthumously-published book provides Hawking’s final thoughts on some of the biggest questions in science and philosophy, from the possibility of intelligent life beyond Earth to the nature of consciousness and the future of humanity.
What Did Stephen Hawking Discover
Stephen Hawking made many groundbreaking discoveries and contributions to the fields of physics and cosmology, some of which include:
The discovery of Hawking radiation, which is the radiation emitted by black holes due to quantum effects.
The development of the theory of cosmological inflation, which explains the uniformity of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
The formulation of the no-boundary proposal, which suggests that the universe began as a singularity-free state.
The demonstration that the Big Bang was a singularity in space-time, and that the universe began as a hot, dense state from which it rapidly expanded.
The development of a theory of black holes, which showed that they could emit radiation and eventually evaporate.
The application of quantum mechanics to black holes, which led to a deeper understanding of their properties and behavior.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Stephen Hawking
What was Stephen Hawking’s most famous discovery?
Hawking is best known for his work on black holes, which led to the discovery of Hawking radiation. He also made significant contributions to our understanding of the early universe and the nature of space and time.
What disease did Stephen Hawking have?
Hawking had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, which is a progressive neurological disorder that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
How long did Stephen Hawking live with ALS?
Hawking was diagnosed with ALS at the age of 21 and was given just a few years to live. However, he lived with the disease for more than five decades, defying medical expectations and becoming one of the longest-surviving ALS patients in history.
Was Stephen Hawking able to speak?
Hawking gradually lost the ability to speak due to his condition, but he used a computerized speech synthesizer to communicate with the world. The voice he used was known as the “Perfect Paul” voice, which became a recognizable part of his public persona.
Did Stephen Hawking ever win a Nobel Prize?
Despite his groundbreaking contributions to physics and cosmology, Hawking never won a Nobel Prize. This is because the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously, and Hawking passed away before his work on black holes was fully confirmed by observations.
What was Stephen Hawking’s impact on science?
Hawking’s work had a profound impact on our understanding of the universe and the fundamental laws of physics. He was a pioneer in the fields of black hole physics and cosmology, and his books and public lectures helped to popularize science and inspire a new generation of researchers.
What was Stephen Hawking like as a person?
Hawking was known for his wit, humor, and determination in the face of his disability. He was also an outspoken advocate for science and education, and he used his public platform to raise awareness of important scientific issues and promote the value of scientific research.
how did stephen hawking die?
Stephen Hawking passed away on March 14, 2018, at the age of 76. He died at his home in Cambridge, England. The cause of his death was attributed to complications from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the neurological disease that he had been living with for more than five decades. Despite his physical limitations, Hawking continued to work and make significant contributions to science up until the end of his life. His passing was a great loss to the scientific community and he remains a celebrated and influential figure in the world of science and beyond.