Munshi Premchand, also known as Dhanpat Rai. He was a renowned Indian writer and novelist who wrote in Hindi and Urdu. He is considered one of the most leading writers in the history, Also his works continue to inspire and entertain readers to this day.
Early Life and Education:
As I mentioned earlier, Munshi Premchand was born on July 31, 1880, in Lamhi, a village near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The Munshi Premchand father name is Ajaib Lal he was a clerk in the Postal Department, and the munshi premchand mother name is Anandi Devi she was a homemaker.
Premchand’s early education was in a madrasa, where he learned Persian and Urdu. However, munshi was not interested in religious studies and dropped out of school at the age of 11. After dropping the school he enrolled in a local school, where he learned Hindi as well as English. And he had leave the school early due to financial issues in his family.
Despite his lack of formal education, Premchand was an avid reader and had a keen interest in literature. He read highly in Hindi, Urdu, and English, and was influenced by the works of writers such as Tolstoy, Gorky, and George Eliot. He continued to educate himself through self-study, and his passion for literature eventually led him to become a writer himself.
At the age of 18, in 1898 Munshi Premchand was started working as a teacher in a government school in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. He taught for several years before quitting his job to follow his career in writing.
Munshi Premchand early career began with the publication of his first story, “Duniya ka Sabse Anmol Ratan” (The Most Precious Jewel in the World), in the Urdu magazine Zamana. He wrote under the pen name “Nawab Rai” at the time.
In 1901, he was start working as an freelance writer and began to write for different magazines and newspapers. He wrote essays, articles, and short stories in Urdu and Hindi language, and his work soon gained recognition for its realism and depiction of social issues.
During this time, Munshi Premchand faced many hardships and financial difficulties. He struggled to make ends meet and had to work odd jobs to support family. Despite these challenges, he continued to write and publish work, which slowly began to gain popularity among readers or users.
Munshi Premchand’s literary career pushed off in the 1900s when he began to publish his work in prominent Hindi and Urdu languages.. He continued to write essays, articles, and short stories, but also started to focus on writing longer works, such as novels and novellas.
Munshi Premchand first novel, “Seva Sadan,” was published in 1919 and was an instant success. In the novel all gernal issues of women’s rights and education and is considered one of Premchand’s most significant works. It was followed by a series of other novels, including the “Nirmala” (1925), “Godaan” (1936), “Karmabhoomi” (1931), and “Rangbhoomi” (1924).
His writing style was characterized by his ability to capture the complexities of human nature and depict the struggles of the common people also His writing was marked by a realism and sensitivity that made it unique and powerful.
Throughout his literary career, Munshi Premchand remained committed to his social and political beliefs, and his writing reflected this. He believed that literature had the power to effect social change and used his writing to highlight the issues facing Indian society at the time.
Today, Munshi Premchand is considered one of the most pupular writers in the history of Indian literature. His work has been translated into several languages, and his stories and novels continue to be read and admired by people all over the world.
The impact of Munshi Premchand is extensive and important. He is widely regarded as one of the most impressive writers in the history of Indian literature, also munshi work has inspired always to generations of writers and readers.
He is used short stories and novels to highlight the struggles of the common people and to expose the injustices and inequalities of Indian society at the time. His writing is characterized by a profound sense of social and political awareness.
Munshi Premchand’s work has been translated into many languages and has been adapted for film, television, and theater. His stories and novels continue to be studied and analyzed by scholars, and his writing remains relevant to contemporary debates and discussions about Indian society.
Munshi Premchand has received numerous honors and recognitions for his contributions to Indian literature, including the Padma Bhushan, one of India’s highest civilian distinctions. In India, the day after his birthdate, July 31, is recognized as National Writers’ Day.
Munshi Premchand books/Novels
Acccording to wikipedia munshi premchand wrote 14 books and over 3 hundred short stories, essays and letters.
|Hindi title||Urdu title||Publisher||Date||Length (pages)||Description|
|Devasthan Rahasya||Asrar-e-Ma’abid||Awaz-e-Khalk (serial form)||8 October 1903 – February 1905||116||English translation of the title: The Mystery of God’s Abode.|
|Prema||Hamkhurma-o-Hamsavab||Indian Press/Hindustan Publishing House||1907||Amrit Rai overcomes social opposition to marry the young widow Poorna, giving up his rich and beautiful fiancé Prema. (Penned under the name “Babu Nawab Rai Banarsi”).|
|Kishna||Medical Hall Press, Banaras||1907||142||Now lost; satirises women’s fondness for jewellery.|
|Roothi Rani||Zamana (serial form)||April–August 1907|
|Soz-e-Watan||Publishers of Zamana||1907, 1909||Banned by the British Government in 1909.|
|Vardaan||Jalwa-e-Isar||Granth Bhandar and Dhanju||1912||128||Vardan (“Boon”) is about Pratap Cahndra and Brij Rani, two childhood neighbours who like each other. Brij marries another man and becomes a famous poet after being widowed. Her friend Madhvi starts liking Pratap after hearing about him from Brij. Pratap becomes a sadhu, and Madhvi becomes his devotee.|
|Seva Sadan||Bazaar-e-Husn||Calcutta Pustak Agency (Hindi)||1919 (Hindi), 1924 (Urdu)||280||An unhappy housewife first becomes a courtesan, and then manages an orphanage for the young daughters of the courtesans.|
|Rangbhoomi||Chaugan-e-Hasti||Darul Ishaat (Urdu, 1935)||1924||English title: Playground.|
|Nirmala||Nirmala||Idaara-e-Furoogh-Urdu||1925||156||English title: The Second Wife. About the dowry system in India (serialised in the magazine Chand between November 1921 and November 1926, before being published as a novel).|
|Kaayakalp||Parda-i-Majaz||Lajpat Rai & Sons, Lahore (Urdu)||1926 (Hindi), 1934 (Urdu)||440|
|Pratigya||Bewa||1927||Deals with widow remarriage.|
|Gaban||Ghaban||Saraswati Press, Banaras; Lajpatrai & Sons, Urdu Bazaar||1931||248|
|Karmabhoomi||Maidan-e-Amal||Maktaba Jamia, Delhi||1932||340|
|Godaan||Saraswati Press||1936||344||English title: The Gift of a Cow. Themed around the socio economic deprivation as well as the exploitation of the village poor.|
|Mangalsootra (incomplete)||Hindustan Publishing House||1936||Premchand completed only first four chapters (around 70 pages) of this novel.|
short stories by munshi premchand
Several of munshi Premchand’s stories have been published in a number of collections, including the 8-volume Mansarovar (1900–1936).
|“Jihad” (Hindi)||Premchand’s Stroy collection “Mansarovar” part-7 story#14 173-180||A story on how the extremist education destroys the harmony of society. A vivid description by Premchand on social issues in 1920s|
|“Lekhak” (Hindi)”Adeeb ki Izat” (Urdu)||A story of writer who wanted respect and recognition of his work but later realised that he is a candle which will have to burn giving light to others.|
|“Duniya ka Sabse Anmol Ratan”||Zamana||1907||The means of title is “The Most Precious Jewel in the World”, which according to the story, is the drop of the blood necessary for the nation’s independence.|
|“Bade Bhai Sahab”||Zamana||1910 (December)||The bade bhaii sahab story of two brothers, their conflict, resolution and understanding.|
|“Beti ka Dhan”||Zamana||1915 (November)||It is the story about Sukkhu Chaudhri, a farmer who was helped by his daughter, Gangajali by selling her jewellery to help her father pay his debts.|
|“Saut”||Sarasvati (Vol. 16, Part 2, No. 6, 353–359)||1915 (December)||The title means “Co-Wife”.|
|“Sajjanata ka Dand”||Sarasvati||1916 (March)||The title means “The Penalty for Integrity”.|
|“Panch Parameshvar“||Sarasvati||1916 (June)||A friendship is marred when one friend delivers a verdict against the other. The story narrates how they reunite as friends.|
|“Ishwariya Nyaya”||Sarasvati||1917 (July)||The title means “The Divine Law”.|
|“Beton Wali Vidhwa”||Sarasvati||1920 (July)|
|“Durga ka Mandir”||Sarasvati||1917 (December)||The title means “The Temple of Durga”.|
|“Maa”||Sarasvati||1921 (November)||The title means “Mother”.|
|“Ghar Jamai”||Sarasvati||1933 (June)|
|“Dil ki Rani”||Sarasvati||1926 (December)|
|“Gulli Danda”||Sarasvati||1925 (May)||Gulli Danda was a very popular sport of rural India; played with a stick and a smaller ‘puck’ of stick’, somewhat similar to cricket.The story is about a man who goes back to his village and tries to play Gulli Danda with his old friends. But the disparity between their economic and social status does not allow a fair game.|
|“Meri Pahli Rachna”||Sarasvati||1930 (May)|
|“Manovratti”||Sarasvati||1932 (May)||The title means “Attitude”. In the story, various people misjudge the intentions of a young woman lying in the park. The end reveals their attitudes and prejudices had completely failed them.|
|“Balidan”||Sarasvati||1918 (May)||The title means “Sacrifice”.|
|“Putra Prem”||Sarasvati||1920 (July)||The title means “Love of a Son”.|
|“Boodhi Kaki”||Hans||1921||The title means “The Old Aunt”. A story of an old woman who craves for love from her family.|
|“Pariksha”||Chand||1923 (January)||The title means “The Test”. Its background is the Nadir Shah’s invasion and sack of Delhi.|
|“Shatranj ke Khiladi” (Hindi)|
“Shatranj ki Bazi” (Urdu)
|Madhuri||October 1924||Two aristocrats—Mirza Sajjad Ali and Mir Roshan Ali—live in the kingdom of Awadh during the times of the British Raj. Both of them are careless towards their duties and spend their days playing chess. Their love for the game is so immense that even when the ruler of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, is captured by the British they continue playing chess. In the end, a move in the game sparks a verbal conflict between them and they end up killing each other with their swords.|
|“Hinsa Parmo Dharma”||Madhuri||1926 (December)|
|“Idgah”||Chand||1933 (August)||A poor boy in India lives with his grandmother. On the festival day of Eid, the other kids buy themselves candies and toys. The poor boy, thinking of his grandmother, buys a pair of tongs to help her make rotis, since she burns her hands trying to cook them bare-handed.|
|“Nashaa”||Chand||1934 (February)||Two friends from different strata of society study away from their homes. The story explores class disparity and aspirations in their friendship. It has an autobiographical touch.|
|“Kafan”||Jamia||1936||A low-caste father and his son are poor labourers in a village. An emergency occurs when the son’s wife dies while giving birth to a child and the family has no money to cremate the body of the dead woman. The lazy duo ask for money from the village zamindar and other members of the society. However, they use the money they get on liquor and food instead.|
|“Cricket Match”||Zamana||1937||Published posthumously.|
|“Gupt Dhan”||Haridas, a man of character, owns a brick factory. He loses his character when he gets a map of a hereditary treasure of a worker, but eventually dies as a punishment of god.|
|“Mantra”||The selfishness of a rich doctor named Chaddha results in the death of a patient. The same patient’s father selflessly cures Dr. Chaddha’s son, when the doctor meets the same sort of situation.|
|“Namak ka Daroga”||1925 (May)||The title means “The Salt Inspector”. An idealist becomes a police officer, and faces problems while performing his duties.|
|“Poos ki Raat”||Madhuri||1930 (May)||The title means “A night of the Poos month (Winter)”. A poor farmer stays out with his dog to protect his field on an extremely cold December night.|
|“Lottery”||Zamana||It is a story of an Indian family in which every member bought a ticket of a 1 million rupees worth lottery. After some time they began to fight over that what would they do if anyone win the lottery but at last neither from their home even town, state or country win the lottery but someone from America.|
|“Vidhwans”||The title means “Catastrophe”. An old widow with no children is engulfed in a fire caused by the owner of the village intentionally and therefore, the pandit pays for the price.|
|“Kazaki”||A story of love, adore and friendship between a little boy and kazaki, a poor but cheerful and jolly man used to work under his father.|
Here are other stories which is written by munshi premchand:
- “Agni Samadhi”
- “Bade Ghar ki Beti” (1926)
- “Bhoot” (1926)
- “Daroga Sahab”
- “Dhaai ser Gehun”
- “Dikri ke Rupaye”
- “Do Bahanein”
- “Do Sakhiyan” (1926)
- “Do Bailon ki Katha”
- “Do Kabren” (1920)
- “Doodh ka Damm” (1910)
- “Gilli danda”
- “Gurumantra” (1927)
- “Har ki Jeet” (1925)
- “Jail” (1931)
- “Juloos” (1930)
- “Khudai Fauzdaar”
- “Manushya ka Param Dharma” (March 1920)
- “Maryada ki Vedi”
- “Mukti Marg” (1922)
- “Muktidhan” (1921)
- “Mamta” (1928)
- “Mandir” (1927)
- “Nimantran” (1926)
- “Pashu se Manushya”
- “Prem Purnima”
- “Prem ka Uday” (1923)
- “Prerna” (1925)
- “Ramleela” (1926)
- “Samar Yatra” (1930)
- “Sati” (1925)
- “Satyagraha” (1923)
- “Sawa ser Gehun” (1921)
- “Sewa Marg”
- “Suhag ki Sari” (1923)
- “Sujan Bhagat”
- “Rani Sarndha” (1930)
- “Swatva Raksha”
- “Thakur ka Kuaan” (1924)
- “Thriya Charita”
- “Tagada” (1924)
- “Khoon Safed” (1923)
- “Udhar ki Ghadi”
- “Vajrpaat” (1922)
- “Raja Hardaul” (1925)
- “Hajje Akbar”
- “Sautele Maa”
- “Kajaki” (1921)
- “Bhadde ka Tattu” (1922)
- “Kazaaki” (1921)
- “Mritak Bhoj” (1922)
Frequently Asked Questions on Munshi Premchand
Who Is Munshi Premchand ?
Munshi Premchand was a renowned Indian writer who is widely regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of Indian literature.
Where Was Munshi Premchand Born?
Munshi Premchand was born on July 31, 1880, in Lamhi, a village near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India..
How Munshi Premchand Died?
Munshi Premchand was died on October 8, 1936, at the age of 56. He died of a heart attack in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Why Premchand Called Munshi?
The Munshi Premchand title was given by his first employer, a deputy inspector of schools. The term Munshi was added to his name as a sign of respect for his scholarship and learning.
What Was the Original Name of Munshi Premchand?
The original name of Munshi Premchand was Dhanpat Rai Srivastava. He later changed his name to Nawab Rai to highlight his admiration for Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh, and then to Munshi Premchand to reflect his status as a learned man (Munshi) and his deep reverence for the Hindu god, Lord Shiva (Premchand).
How Many Novels Written by Munshi Premchand
Around 14 novels were written by Munshi Premchand, which include some of his most famous book/novels such as “Seva Sadan,” “Nirmala,” “Godaan,” “Karmabhoomi,” and “Rangbhoomi”.
What Kind of Writing Did Munshi Premchand Do?
Munshi Premchand wrote essays, articles, short stories, and longer works such as novels and novellas.
Is Munshi Premchand Won Any Awards?
Yes, Munshi Premchand was won many awards and accolades for his contributions on Indian literature. He was honored with the Padma Bhushan, one of India’s highest civilian awards, in 1936.
Where Is Munshi Premchand College
Munshi Premchand College is located in the city of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. which is established in 1947.